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In political science, Europeanization refers to the process whereby national politics, policy-making processes and public choices are highly influenced by European political and economic dynamics. This de fi nition emphasizes the top-down approach of European integration, with changes originating from European institutions and states being receptive. In contrast, the bottom- up approach of Europeanization stresses the impact that single member states have on the shaping of the EU’s institutional structures and its policy-making processes.

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